First Identified in the Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology

to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution





Bear arrows.-These are of three kinds, all having a broad, sharp pile, often barbed.

(Pile: The fitting at the front of an arrow having a point for penetration and weight for how the arrow shoots and flies.)


    The first kind has a pile of flaked flint (chert), called kuki ("claw" or "nail", and was known as kukiksadlin ("provided or fitted with claw material ").




No. 89240 [25], Fig. 182, will serve as the type. The pile is of black flint, double edged and sharp pointed, 2 inches long, with a short tang inserted into a cleft in the end of the stele, and secured by a whipping of about fifteen turns of fine sinew.



FIG. 182.-Flint-headed arrow (kuklksadlin).



Needle Base Form

Note the tapered shoulders.

L: 1.69", T: .29", W: .52"


The only variations of importance in these arrows are in the shape of the pile, which is made of black or gray flint (Chert), or less often of jasper, mostly variegated, brown and gray.




The first is long and narrow, like No. 56704
                    [232], Fig. 183, from Utkiavwin, which is of gray flint.



FIG.l83.-Long Flint in shape



The second pattern, which is less common than the others, is about the size of the last, but rhomboidal


FIG.l84.-Short Flint pile





(Fig. 184, No. 566910 [640], from Utkiavwin, of pile. dark grayish brown flint, rather coarsely flaked). The fourth kind is very short, being not over 1-1/2 inches, including the half- inch tang, but is 1 inch broad, thick and convex on both faces. It is triangular, with a square base and curved edges (Fig. 185, No. 56702b [U3b], from Utkiavwin.

FIG.l85.-Heart Shaped Flint pile



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